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alia. In fact, any organizations or individuals providing communication services to Australia
are subject to its jurisdiction, whether its “company, server, manufacturing location” is locat
ed in Australia or not. More shockingly, the law imposes an extraordinary duty of confidentiality. The priva
te sector, which assists law enforcement, cannot disclose the details of the instructions it receives, or even the ins
tructions themselves. Otherwise, the violators will be put into prison for up to five years.
In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu warned: “Constant experience shows us that every
man invested with power is apt to abuse it, and to carry his authority as far as it will go.” The bill, with its secrecy, broa
d jurisdiction and powers that can set up “backdoors” of systems, has caused widespread fear among Austr
alians, with many thinking the law has opened “Pandora’s box” of “surveillance states”.
fied. Shortly after the attack, the US government introduced the Patriot Act, the Accuracy Act and
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which formed a comprehensive intelligence surv
eillance network. According to a survey by Privacy International in 2007 covering 47 countries, the United States ran
ked first in the monitoring index. But the United States didn’t stop there. In 2013, Edward Snowden, a technical an
alyst at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), exposed the Prism program. In this seven-year top-secret electronic sur
veillance, monitored individuals include non-Americans who use related company services, or any US citizen who co
mmunicates with foreigners, including email, video and voice conversations, and social network details, and so on, can be descr
ibed as large-scale indiscriminate monitoring. Surveillance states were finally formed.